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VIDEO: Plaid Cymru launches manifesto

BBC test - Tue, 2015-03-31 16:20
Plaid Cymru launches its general election manifesto calling for an end to austerity measures and more funding for Wales.
Categories: General

Humans have always come in different shapes and sizes

Heritage Daily - Tue, 2015-03-31 12:07
Tübingen researchers show that even our earliest ancestors varied in build.

A joint study by researchers from the Universities of Tübingen and Cambridge demonstrates that the earliest members of our genus Homo varied widely in body size. Until now, we knew little about the height and weight of our ancestors who lived between 2.5 and 1.5 million years ago.

Co-author of the study, Manuel Will, says even then, human populations varied in size. Will is a doctoral candidate at Tübingen’s institute of Early Prehistory and Quaternary Ecology. “These findings have important implications for the evolution of our genus,” he says. The study was published online yesterday in the Journal of Human Evolution.

Will worked with Cambridge anthropologist Jay Stock to compare the physiology of individuals from early human populations, using fossils from the famous Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania and from Koobi Fora in Kenya, as well as individuals from the “Cradle of Humankind” in South Africa. Their sample also included the oldest human fossils from outside Africa, from Dmanisi in Georgia.

They found significant differences in body sizes which strongly indicate that there were at least two differently sized species of Homo living between 2.5 and 1.5 million years ago. Individuals from Koobi Fora (1.7-1.5 million years ago) stood up to around 165 cm and weighed 70kg on average, whereas their contemporaries from Olduvai appear to have been on average 20cm smaller and 20kg lighter.

The comparison between the African and Eurasian fossils showed that early humans grew bigger only after the first migrations out of Africa and more specifically around 1.7-1.5 million years ago within Africa in the Koobi Fora region. Furthermore, the Georgian fossils still possessed smaller bodies. Taken together, this belies the theory that bigger size was the necessary physical condition for the first humans to migrate to Eurasia according to study authors Will and Stock.

The researchers used mathematical formulas to determine the size of the bodies in life, extrapolating from the fossil remains. Such fragments often reveal the genus but do not provide enough information for researchers to determine the species with certainty.

For this reason, the Tübingen-Cambridge study did not classify the fossils according to species, instead using time and geography to determine the body-size difference in these early human populations.

These two variables were easier to control, and at the same time, increased the sample size of early Homo individuals – because all the bone fragments from the right era and location could be included. “This innovative approach has allowed the researchers to shed new light on the evolution of body size within our genus,” says Professor Katerina Harvati-Papatheodorou, head of the Palaeoanthropology working group at Tübingen’s Institute of Prehistory and Medieval Archaeology.

The study is the most comprehensive of its kind to date and the first statistical investigation of body-size differences between early Homo species.

Universitaet Tübingen – Header Image Olduvai Gorge : Credit : Sabines Sunbird

Categories: General

The stapes of a neanderthal child points to the anatomical differences with our species

Heritage Daily - Tue, 2015-03-31 11:59
The Neanderthals (Homo neanderthalensis) inhabited Europe and parts of western Asia between 230,000 and 28,000 years ago; during the last few millennia they coincided with Homo Sapiens Sapiens, and became extinct for reasons that are still being challenged.

The archaeological site at La Ferrassie, excavated throughout the 20th century, is a mythical enclave because it was where 7 Neanderthal skeletons, ranging from foetuses to almost complete skeletons of adults, were found.

Among the remains discovered at La Ferrassie is the skeleton of a 2-year-old Neanderthal child found between 1970 and 1973 and baptised La Ferrassie 8; over 40 years since its discovery it has turned out to be useful in shedding new light on the anatomy of this extinct species.

The study began by reviewing the collections at the Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle in Paris and at the Museo d’Archéologie national de St. Germain-en-Laye linked to the excavations at La Ferrassie in 1970 and 1973; it was there that 47 new fossils belonging to La Ferrassie 8, which complete its skeleton further, were recovered. Remains of a skull, jaw, vertebrae, ribs and hand phalanges were found among the new fossils.

Featuring among the remains is a very complete left temporal bone and an auditory ossicle was found inside it: a complete stapes. Virtual 3D reconstruction techniques enabled this ossicle to be “extracted virtually” and studied.

This stapes is the most complete one in the Neanderthal record and certifies that there are morphological differences between our species and the Neanderthals even in the smallest ossicles in the human body. As Asier Gómez-Olivencia pointed out, “we do not yet know the relation between these morphological differences and hearing in the Neanderthals. This would constitute a new challenge for the future”.

The study of these new remains has been published in the prestigious Journal of Human Evolution, and has also had the participation of researchers of the CNRS (French National Centre for Scientific Research) in Paris and Bordeaux. The fact that a discovery of such significance has been made thanks to reviewing the remains excavated in the 1970s provides the researcher with proof of “the importance and need to review old excavations. We’re in no doubt about that”.

University of the Basque Country

 

Categories: General

New lobster-like predator found in 508 million-year-old fossil-rich site

Heritage Daily - Tue, 2015-03-31 11:55
What do butterflies, spiders and lobsters have in common?

They are all surviving relatives of a newly identified species called Yawunik kootenayi, a marine creature with two pairs of eyes and prominent grasping appendages that lived as much as 508 million years ago – more than 250 million years before the first dinosaur.

The fossil was identified by an international team led by palaeontologists at the University of Toronto (U of T) and the Royal Ontario Museum (ROM) in Toronto, as well as Pomona College in California. It is the first new species to be described from the Marble Canyon site, part of the renowned Canadian Burgess Shale fossil deposit.

Yawunik had evolved long frontal appendages that resemble the antennae of modern beetles or shrimps, though these appendages were composed of three long claws, two of which bore opposing rows of teeth that helped the animal catch its prey.

“This creature is expanding our perspective on the anatomy and predatory habits of the first arthropods, the group to which spiders and lobsters belong,” said Cedric Aria, a PhD candidate in U of T’s Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology and lead author of the resulting study published this week in Palaeontology. “It has the signature features of an arthropod with its external skeleton, segmented body and jointed appendages, but lacks certain advanced traits present in groups that survived until the present day. We say that it belongs to the ‘stem’ of arthropods.”

The study presents evidence that Yawunik was capable of moving its frontal appendages backward and forward, spreading them out during an attack and then retracting them under its body when swimming. Coupled with the long, sensing whip-like flagella extending from the tip of the claws, this makes the frontal appendages of the animal some of the most versatile and complex in all known arthropods.

“Unlike insects or crustaceans, Yawunik did not possess additional appendages in the head that were specifically modified to process food,” said Aria. “Evolution resulted here in a combination of adaptations onto the frontal-most appendage of this creature, maybe because such modifications were easier to acquire.

“We know that the larvae of certain crustaceans can use their antennae to both swim and gather food. But a large active predator such as a mantis shrimp has its sensory and grasping functions split up between appendages. Yawunik and its relatives tell us about the condition existing before such a division of tasks among parts of the organism took place.”

The Marble Canyon site is located in British Columbia’s Kootenay National Park, 40 kilometres south from the original Burgess Shale in Yoho National Park. Aria was part of the team that discovered the site in 2012, led by Jean-Bernard Caron, an associate professor at U of T’s Departments of Earth Sciences and Ecology & Evolutionary Biology and curator of invertebrate palaeontology at the ROM, and Robert Gaines, associate professor at the Department of Geology at Pomona College in California, both co-authors of the study.

“Yawunik is the most abundant of the large new species of the Marble Canyon site, and so, as a predator, it held a key position in the food network and had an important impact on this past ecosystem,” said Caron. “This animal is therefore important for the study of Marble Canyon, and shows how the site increases the significance of the Burgess Shale in understanding the dawn of animals.”

The study benefited from cutting-edge techniques of fossil imagery, including so-called “elemental mapping,” which consists in detecting the atomic composition of the fossil and the sediment surrounding it.

“Our understanding of these organisms rests upon interpreting their fossil remains,” said Gaines. “These fossils are a composed of a mosaic of delicate original organic material and minerals that replicate parts of fossil anatomy.

“The scanning electron microscope allows us to make maps of the fossils that reveal their composition. This gives us a remarkable perspective on the fossils, allowing anatomical structures to be visualized more precisely. This technique also provides insight into the unusual fossilization process that was at work here.”

The new creature is named in tribute to the Ktunaxa People who have long inhabited the Kootenay area where the Marble Canyon locality was found. It owes its name to “Yawu?nik?”, a mythological figure described as a huge and fierce marine creature, killing and causing such mayhem that it triggered an epic hunt by other animals to bring the threat down.

“We wanted to acknowledge the Ktunaxa culture, and given the profile of Yawunik, it looked like a natural choice of name,” Aria said.

“Yawu?nik? is a central figure in the Ktunaxa creation story, and, as such, is a vital part of Ktunaxa oral history,” said Donald Sam, Ktunaxa Nation Council Director of Traditional Knowledge and Language. “I am ecstatic that the research team recognizes how important our history is in our territory, and chose to honour the Ktunaxa through this amazing discovery.”

University of Toronto

Categories: General

Bronze Age bones evidence of political divination

Stonepages - Tue, 2015-03-31 11:37
Coloured stones and dice-like knucklebones used for divination were found deep within the ruins of the fallen citadel of Gegharot, a hilltop fortress on the Tsaghkahovit Plain in central Armenia....
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Saharan 'carpet of tools' earliest known man-made landscape

Stonepages - Tue, 2015-03-31 11:37
A new intensive survey of the Messak Settafet escarpment in southern Libya, a massive outcrop of sandstone in the middle of the Saharan desert, has shown that stone tools occur...
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VIDEO: Mary Portas: 'Case of survival'

BBC test - Tue, 2015-03-31 10:04
Mary Portas speaks to the BBC about her new memoir, Shop Girl.
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VIDEO: Nursing code of conduct launched

BBC test - Tue, 2015-03-31 09:17
A new code of conduct has been launched by the body that oversees 670,000 nurses and midwives in the UK.
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VIDEO: Disability village 'under threat'

BBC test - Tue, 2015-03-31 08:24
The village of Botton in North Yorkshire has been home to people with learning disabilities for 60 years, but there are claims that the community could be under threat.
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VIDEO: 'Porn made my boyfriend abuse me'

BBC test - Tue, 2015-03-31 06:00
A young woman talks about how her boyfriend's pornography habit led to him abusing her when she was 13.
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VIDEO: Scotland's crucial 2015 election role

BBC test - Mon, 2015-03-30 23:08
Opinion surveys are suggesting unprecedented gains for the Scottish National Party in the upcoming general election.
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VIDEO: Key election figures brought to life

BBC test - Mon, 2015-03-30 20:59
With just under six weeks to go until polling day the size of the electoral challenge for all the parties is clear.
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VIDEO: Election 2015: What do voters want?

BBC test - Mon, 2015-03-30 18:59
The BBC's Jon Kay has travelled from London to Glasgow, talking to voters about what they want from this election.
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VIDEO: Election leaders - little known facts

BBC test - Mon, 2015-03-30 18:45
Rarely heard information about the leaders of the UK's bigger political parties
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VIDEO: Election 2015 reality check: Tax

BBC test - Mon, 2015-03-30 18:21
The general election campaign has officially kicked off with a claim from the Conservatives that every working family in Britain would pay an extra £3,028 in taxes under a Labour government.
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VIDEO: Fox makes a bid for Downing Street

BBC test - Mon, 2015-03-30 15:03
Journalists waiting outside 10 Downing Street spot a fox, apparently chasing a duck.
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VIDEO: 148mph M11 biker caught on camera

BBC test - Mon, 2015-03-30 14:35
A motorcyclist carrying a pillion passenger at 148mph along the M11, believed to be the highest ever recorded in the UK, has been banned from driving for 15 months.
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VIDEO: Russell Watson: I'm back to my best

BBC test - Mon, 2015-03-30 11:05
Singer Russell Watson speaks to BBC Breakfast about preparing to star in the musical Follies at the Royal Albert Hall.
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Prehistoric stone tools bear 500,000-year-old animal residue

Stonepages - Mon, 2015-03-30 09:20
Professor Ran Barkai and two graduate students from the Tel Aviv University Department of Archaeology and Ancient Near Eastern Cultures recently confirmed that stone tools found among elephant remains at...
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Late Mesolithic finds in the Scottish Borders

Stonepages - Mon, 2015-03-30 09:20
During the Scottish Lithic Scatters Project in the 1990s, an early prehistoric site was discovered by Chris Barrowman at Garvald Burn, near Dolphinton, in the Scottish Borders. Subsequent investigation yielded...
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