General

VIDEO: Esha Ness cave is 'UK's biggest'

BBC test - Thu, 2014-08-28 11:50
Geologist Jonathan Swale claims that the Calders Geo sea cave at Esha Ness in Shetland is the largest in Britain.
Categories: General

Exercise Adlertag

Wessex Archaeology - Thu, 2014-08-28 10:15

Images Crown Copyright

Last week saw the latest archaeological investigation by Operation Nightingale take place, this time on the Lulworth Ranges. Codenamed Exercise Adlertag, after the German military operation by the Luftwaffe to destroy the RAF in WWII, the project aimed to excavate and record the crash site of a Messerschmitt BF110 aircraft.  The plane itself, a twin-engine heavy fighter, is believed to have been from V (Z) Lehrgeschwader 1 and was on a mission to attack Portland when it crashed on 13 August 1940. An eye-witness to the crash tells of the German squadron being intercepted by the RAF off the Dorset Coast and of this aircraft being shot down. The crash was almost certainly fatal to the aviators, and the plane is one of two possible candidates from this squadron. It is thought to be either that crewed by Lt Günter Beck who was killed (buried at Portland Royal Naval cemetery) whilst the bordfunker, Uffz Karl Hoyer, is listed as missing. Or possibly that piloted by Fw Hans Datz, who was made prisoner of war whilst the bordfunker, Uffz Georg Lämmel was killed and is also buried at Portland. The aim of the Operation Nightingale investigation was to determine the exact location and extent of the crash site and to recover the remains of the air frame, which are suffering damage due to their location directly across on the South West Coastal Path. This project built on the work carried out in August 2013 on the crash site of Spitfire P9503, though this time examining a German wreck from the Battle of Britain.  Following magnetometry, ground penetrating radar and laser-scan surveys, the site investigation began with a walkover survey with metal detectors; with each artefact flagged and recorded by total station. Being located within the active firing area, work was closely monitored by ordnance experts from the RAF bomb disposal squadron. Areas with a high density of results were selected for hand excavation by the team of volunteers, aircraft specialists and injured service personnel and veterans.  The week proved to be very productive with large quantities of material recovered including fragments of propeller, Daimler Benz engines, ammunition (including spend cases illustrating that the rear gunner had, not surprisingly, fired back at RAF fighters), perspex canopy, magneto and other elements. The excavation demonstrated that the aircraft had crashed directly into the cliff at a near-vertical angle and had then been engulfed in flames. The remains will be brought to the lab here at Wessex Archaeology to be processed by our enthusiastic volunteer team before further analysis can take place.  Written by Laura Joyner (Wessex Archaeology) and Richard Osgood (Defence Infrastructure Organisation)  
Categories: General

AUDIO: Can school uniform ever be cool?

BBC test - Thu, 2014-08-28 10:02
School uniform will never be cool, and it is not meant to be, says Mr Drew from TV's Educating Essex
Categories: General

VIDEO: 'Uzi accident couldn't happen in UK'

BBC test - Thu, 2014-08-28 09:45
Shooting instructor Peter Wroe tells the BBC why an incident in the US where a nine-year-old girl shot a gun range worker could not happen in the UK.
Categories: General

Unique figurines found in Turkey

Stonepages - Thu, 2014-08-28 09:39
Excavations ongoing in the ancient city of Patara in the southern province of Antalya have revealed two figurines dating to approximately 3,000 and 7,000 BCE. According to reports, the stone...
Categories: General

VIDEO: Newport's 'ring of steel' for Nato summit

BBC test - Thu, 2014-08-28 08:17
The Nato summit is being held in Newport, Wales and an estimated £50m is being spent on security measures, including an eight mile fence around the venue.
Categories: General

VIDEO: 'Violence just became normal'

BBC test - Thu, 2014-08-28 07:49
A victim of sexual exploitation and abuse in Rotherham tells the BBC's Graham Satchell how she suffered at the hands of an older man but says the police did nothing to help her.
Categories: General

AUDIO: Puffins 'Frankie Howerd of bird world'

BBC test - Thu, 2014-08-28 07:33
A study by the National Trust suggests seabirds around the UK coastline are being hit by a "triple whammy" of extreme weather, predators and disturbance by humans.
Categories: General

VIDEO: 'Cancer made me feel so alone'

BBC test - Thu, 2014-08-28 07:06
Three-quarters of cancer patients who are clinically depressed do not get the psychological therapy they need, according to research in the Lancet.
Categories: General

VIDEO: Controversy over new Lennon film

BBC test - Thu, 2014-08-28 00:01
A new film that looks at the events that unfolded the night Beatles star John Lennon was shot, is causing controversy amongst critics and fans.
Categories: General

Beautiful, grown-up and erudite: Coastal Currents festival returns with sawing and feathers

24 Hour Museum - Thu, 2014-08-28 00:00
Alice Anderson's work on the front of an Old Town shop and Kate MccGwire's strange feathers in a castle are among the highlights in the Hastings festival's 15th year.
Categories: General

National Motorcycle Museum offers £20,000 reward after thieves smash trophy cabinets

24 Hour Museum - Thu, 2014-08-28 00:00
The Solihull museum is appealing for information after thieves stole trophies and replicas and caused "substantial damage" during a late night break-in.
Categories: General

Public offered toilet roll and cut-price prints by Chapman Brothers in Jerwood Gallery appeal

24 Hour Museum - Thu, 2014-08-28 00:00
With just three days left to raise the £25,000 needed to bring the Chapman Brothers to Hastings, the Jerwood Gallery is calling on the public to help it cross the finish line.
Categories: General

VIDEO: Festival security allow laughing gas

BBC test - Wed, 2014-08-27 20:38
Widespread consumption of laughing gas at one of the UK's top dance festivals is exposed by a BBC investigation - as security turn a blind eye.
Categories: General

VIDEO: Local circus heads back out on tour

BBC test - Wed, 2014-08-27 18:05
Behind the scenes at Giffords Circus which has been touring around the south west region annually for 15 years.
Categories: General

Neanderthals ‘overlapped’ with modern humans for up to 5,400 years

Heritage Daily - Wed, 2014-08-27 17:58
Neanderthals and modern humans were both living in Europe for between 2,600 and 5,400 years, according to a new paper published in the journal, Nature. For the first time, scientists have constructed a robust timeline showing when the last Neanderthals died out.

Significantly, the research paper says there is strong evidence to suggest that Neanderthals disappeared at different times across Europe rather than being rapidly replaced by modern humans.

A team, led by Professor Thomas Higham of the University of Oxford, obtained new radiocarbon dates for around 200 samples of bone, charcoal and shell from 40 key European archaeological sites. The sites, ranging from Russia in the east to Spain in the west, were either linked with the Neanderthal tool-making industry, known as Mousterian, or were ‘transitional’ sites containing stone tools associated with either early modern humans or Neanderthals.

The chronology was pieced together during a six-year research project by building mathematical models that combine the new radiocarbon dates with established archaeological stratigraphic evidence. The results showed that both groups overlapped for a significant period, giving ‘ample time’ for interaction and interbreeding. The paper adds, however, it is not clear where interbreeding may have happened in Eurasia or whether it occurred once or several times.

Professor Thomas Higham said: ‘Other recent studies of Neanderthal and modern human genetic make-up suggest that both groups interbred outside Africa, with 1.5%-2.1% or more of the DNA of modern non-African human populations originating from Neanderthals. We believe we now have the first robust timeline that sheds new light on some of the key questions around the possible interactions between Neanderthals and modern humans. The chronology also pinpoints the timing of the Neanderthals’ disappearance, and suggests they may have survived in dwindling populations in pockets of Europe before they became extinct.’

In 2011, another Nature paper featuring Dr Katerina Douka of the Oxford team obtained some very early dates (around 45,000 years old) for the so-called ‘transitional’ Uluzzian stone-tool industry of Italy and identified teeth remains in the site of the Grotta del Cavallo, Apulia, as those of anatomically modern humans. Under the new timeline published today, the Mousterian industry (attributed to Neanderthals and found across vast areas of Europe and Eurasia) is shown to have ended between 41,030 to 39,260 years ago. This suggests strongly that there was an extensive overlapping period between Neanderthals and modern humans of several thousand years. The scientific team has for the first time specified exactly how long this overlap lasted, with 95% probability.

The Uluzzian also contains objects, such as shell beads, that scholars widely believe signify symbolic or advanced behaviour in early human groups. One or two of the Châtelperronian sites of France and northern Spain (currently, although controversially, associated with Neanderthals) contain some similar items. This supports the theory first advanced several years ago that the arrival of early modern humans in Europe may have stimulated the Neanderthals into copying aspects of their symbolic behaviour in the millennia before they disappeared. The paper also presents an alternative theory: that the similar start dates of the two industries could mean that Châtelperronian sites are associated with modern humans and not Neanderthals after all.

There is currently no evidence to show that Neanderthals and early modern humans lived closely together, regardless of whether the Neanderthals were responsible for the Châtelperronian culture, the paper says. Rather than modern humans rapidly replacing Neanderthals, there seems to have been a more complex picture ‘characterised by a biological and cultural mosaic that lasted for several thousand years’.
The Châtelperronian industry follows the Mousterian in archaeological layers at all sites where both occur. Importantly, however, the Châtelperronian industry appears to have started significantly before the end of Mousterian at some sites in Europe. This suggests that if Neanderthals were responsible for both cultures, there may have been some regional variation in their tool-making, says the paper.

Professor Higham said: ‘Previous radiocarbon dates have often underestimated the age of samples from sites associated with Neanderthals because the organic matter was contaminated with modern particles. We used ultrafiltration methods, which purify the extracted collagen from bone, to avoid the risk of modern contamination. This means we can say with more confidence that we have finally resolved the timing of the disappearance of our close cousins, the Neanderthals. Of course the Neanderthals are not completely extinct because some of their genes are in most of us today.’

Previous research had suggested that the Iberian Peninsula (modern-day Spain and Portugal) and the site of Gorham’s Cave, Gibraltar, might have been the final places in Europe where Neanderthals survived. Despite extensive dating work, the research team could not confirm the previous dates. The paper suggests that poor preservation techniques for the dating material could have led to contamination and false ‘younger’ dates previously.

The image shows a Neanderthal model from the Natural History Museum, London, one of the institutions that carried out the research in collaboration with Oxford.

University of Oxford

 

 

Categories: General

The nuclear legacy of Hiroshima is a global issue, how much of it is a trauma for everybody?

Heritage Daily - Wed, 2014-08-27 17:26
Speaking in Hiroshima in the weeks preceding the sixty-ninth anniversary of the bombing of the city, Yoko Ono stood up for peace declaring that ‘No More Hiroshima’ is a global issue.

In light of the continued legacy of the event, a new study recently published in Japanese Studies  looks at how the Hiroshima story penetrated into the realm of Japanese public memory and investigates whether the trauma became a truly national one. Crucially, the research questions if the transformation from a circumscribed experience to a society-encompassing one was a natural experience or a constructed phenomenon instead.

The author of the article From Local to National Experience: Has Hiroshima Become a ‘Trauma for Everybody’?, Anna Shipilova, takes the work of American sociologist Jeffrey C. Alexander on cultural trauma into consideration in her analysis. Central to Alexander’s argument is that ‘events themselves do not create collective trauma, but that such a trauma is a socially mediated attribution’. A number of key factors – the people experiencing the tragedy first-hand, the narrative, as well as the institutionalisation of the story – come into play in constructing a ‘trauma for everybody,’ she adds.  A fitting example is how the Holocaust turned into a widespread tragedy in the States only in the 1970s, not at the time; a similar transformation can be observed in the Hiroshima narrative. Looking at the years between 1945 and 1990, the study illustrates how the hibakusha’s (nuclear bomb survivors) experience was reflected and built into a tragedy for the whole Japanese society.

Even though most Japanese didn’t perceive the tragedy as relevant to their own experience in the aftermath of WWII, a shift happened in the following decades; the economic growth in the 1960s and the Cold War years were significant in turning the Hiroshima story into a national one. ‘Japan as a peaceful nation with the Hiroshima tragedy at its core became the official narrative’ explains the author. The advent of the 1990s, with the dwindling risk of an atomic war, meant the country had yet to re-think its international image; from being the guard standing against nuclear warfare, Japan turned its attention to the victims of atomic tests and included them into its narrative.

Whereas the evolution of the Hiroshima story ‘into a national trauma is similar to the process described by Alexander’ explains the author, the lack of emotional connection to the event from the majority of Japanese as well as the authorities’ deliberate refusal to identify a perpetrator, means its narrative never became a national one. So, while Hiroshima is clearly not a shared issue for the Japanese society, its message of peace extends well beyond the perimeter of the country. In a world torn by conflict, its call is truly an international one.

Taylor & Francis

Categories: General

Huddersfield researcher traces Jack the Ripper’s forgotten victims

Heritage Daily - Wed, 2014-08-27 17:05
UNIVERSITY of Huddersfield researcher Charlotte Mallinson is turning Ripperology on its head.

She is barely concerned with the identity of the man who slew and mutilated a sequence of Whitechapel women in 1888. Instead, she wants to reclaim the victims, turn a spotlight on the social conditions that led to their plight and restore to them some dignity amidst the endless procession of grisly Ripper tours that draw tourists to the East End.

Meanwhile, as a frequent and fascinated visitor to London and a witness to its dark tourism, she provides a Yorkshirewoman’s eye view of the capital.

“With Jack the Ripper, Sweeney Todd and attractions such as the London Dungeon it seems to be a city that thrives on the macabre and tales of murders and executions. It is all is highly profitable and entertaining but an anomaly that these topics should provide the subject matter for tourism,” says Charlotte.

“I think that being a Northerner I can look at London objectively and when I am discussing my research with locals in Whitechapel they say, yes you’re right, it is weird, but they have been spoon fed all this from birth.  It is just part of their normality. But Whitechapel is an amazing place and I would happily live there. It is such a vibrant community,” said Charlotte, whose current researches have led her to meet and befriend many of the sex workers who today ply the streets once trod by Jack the Ripper.

Charlotte – a single mother of four children – was forced to quit schooling early when she became a teenage mum, holding down a succession of jobs such as bar work and cleaning. But eventually she decided she wanted more out of life and enrolled at the University of Huddersfield for a BA course covering English Literature plus heritage.

She rapidly showed an aptitude for academic work and scored First Class Honours. Then came a Master’s degree which enabled her to explore further her fascination for the heritage industry, especially its darker, more troubling dimensions, such as museums that display human remains.

Her MA dissertation argued that popular representations of Whitechapel’s infamous history amounted to a dehumanisation of the women who were brutally murdered in 1888.  She claimed that this was due to discrimination, based on the victims’ gender, their ‘overt sexuality’ and their socio-economic status. Meanwhile Jack the Ripper – because he managed to evade detection – was mythologised and celebrated.

Charlotte has now developed this theme for doctoral research, for which she was awarded a bursary by the University of Huddersfield. The project means that she has become immersed in the saga and cult of Jack the Ripper – without feeling any interest in whom he actually was.

“My focus is on the women.  Of all the ‘Ripperology’ books I have read, I have not once finished a last chapter in which the author reveals their theory about the killer’s identity.  I cannot get drawn into that.   I don’t even think it is relevant, although it is interesting that Jack the Ripper is constantly given an elite identity and the females involved are more and more dehumanised, so that you don’t even hear their names.”

Charlotte’s PhD project – supervised by historian Dr Rob Ellis – is entitled “Our History, Our Streets, Our Voice, Our Future: Reclaiming the Historiography of the Whitechapel Murders”. It will result in both a written thesis and an exhibition that will be a mixture of oral and photographic material, including evidence from current Whitechapel sex workers who will describe their lives and how they exist alongside Ripper tourism.

Charlotte has attended many Ripper tours, of which there are 17 currently in operation.

“You will be walking down Whitechapel and its tiny alleyways and have to wait in one spot while another group passes you by. The area is saturated with tourists. But there is a difference of tone,” she said.

“There are some tours that emphasises the poverty of the area and that the women were forced into prostitution.  But the worst tour I went on, I had to leave early because I was grossly offended. They projected huge images of the murder victims on to the spot where they died and they ridiculed the appearance of these women – the fact that they were toothless or fat or had bad skin.

“However, the starkest tension for me – and the reason I went down the PhD route – is that tourists would sigh at the plight of the victims and poverty in the 1880s and then go round the corner and step over a group of homeless women.”

University of Huddersfield

Categories: General

VIDEO: Cheers and tears after Man Utd rout

BBC test - Wed, 2014-08-27 16:47
Some Manchester United fans have reacted angrily after their 4-0 defeat by League One side Milton Keynes Dons on Tuesday.
Categories: General

VIDEO: 'Get taxi or lift' urges ambulance trust

BBC test - Wed, 2014-08-27 14:11
Patients are to be encouraged to travel to hospital by taxi or get a lift rather than call for an ambulance if they are assessed as low priority.
Categories: General
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