VIDEO: 'Dodgy dental equipment' seized

BBC test - Fri, 2014-10-17 18:53
More than 12,000 pieces of illegal dental equipment have been seized in the UK in the past six months.
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VIDEO: Meet the crew on board RFA Argus

BBC test - Fri, 2014-10-17 15:28
BBC News met some of the military personnel who are working on board the Royal Navy medical ship RFA Argus.
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VIDEO: 'Three mile walk to coal face'

BBC test - Fri, 2014-10-17 14:14
The BBC's Jeremy Cooke meets a father and son who describe their challenging journey to the coal face at Hatfield Colliery
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VIDEO: UK Ebola airport screening extended

BBC test - Fri, 2014-10-17 13:53
Passenger screening for Ebola is to be extended to Manchester and Birmingham airports, Public Health England says.
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VIDEO: Labour wants football fan trusts

BBC test - Fri, 2014-10-17 13:47
Labour has announced plans to give football fans a greater say in the way their club is run.
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VIDEO: Honour for Dame Maggie Smith

BBC test - Fri, 2014-10-17 12:32
Dame Maggie Smith has become a Companion of Honour in an investiture ceremony at Windsor Castle.
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Journey to the centre of the earth

Heritage Daily - Fri, 2014-10-17 12:19
UCSB geochemist uses helium and lead isotopes to obtain a better understanding of the makeup of the planet’s deep interior.

A geochemist, from UC Santa Barbara, has been studying Samoan volcanoes and discovered evidence of the planet’s early formation is still trapped inside the earth. Known as hotspots, volcanic island chains such as Samoa can be ancient primordial signatures from the early solar system that have survived billions of years.

Matthew Jackson, an associate professor in UCSB’s Department of Earth Science, and colleagues used high-precision lead and helium isotope measurements to untangle the chemical the chemical composition and geometry of the deep mantle plume feeding Samoa’s volcanoes. Their findings were published yesterday in the journal Nature.

Volcanoes are usually located at the point where two tectonic places meet and are created when those plates collide or diverge. Hotspot volcanoes are an exception as they are not located at plate boundaries, but instead represent the anomalous melting in the interior of the plates.

Such intraplate volcanoes form above a plume-fed hotspot where the Earth’s mantle is melting. The plate moves over time- at about the same rate that human fingernails grow (3 inches a year)- and eventually the volcano moves from the hotspot and becomes extinct. A new volcano forms in its place over the hotspot and process repeats itself until a string of volcanoes evolves.

“So you end up with this linear trend of age-progressive volcanoes,” Jackson said. “On the Pacific plate, the youngest is in the east and as you go west, the volcanoes are older and more deeply eroded. Hawaii has two linear trends of volcanoes- most underwater- which are parallel to each other. There’s a southern trend and a northern trend.”

Due to the volcanic composition of parallel Hawaiian trends being fundamentally different, Jackson and his team made the decision to look for evidence in other hotspots. In Samoa, they found three volcanic trends exhibiting three different chemical configurations as well as a fourth group of a late-stage eruption on top of the third trend of volcanoes. These different groups demonstrate distinct compositions.

“Our goal was to figure out how we could use this distribution of volcano compositions at the surface to reverse-engineer how these components are distributed inside this upwelling mountain plume at depth,” Jackson said.

Kilauea located in Hawaii, the most active shield volcano in the world: WikiPedia

Each of the four distinct geochemical compositions, or endmembers, that the scientists identified in Samoan lavas contained low Helium-3 (He-3) and Helium-4 (He-4) ratios. The startling discovery was that they all showed evidence for mixing a fifth, rare primordial component consisting of high levels of He-3 and He-4.

“We have really strong evidence that the bulk of the plume is made up of the high Helium-3, -4 component,” Jackson said. “That tells us that most of this plume is primordial material and there are other materials hosted inside of this plume with low Helium-3, -4, and they are likely crustal materials sent into the mantle at ancient subduction zones.”

This unique isotope topology unveiled by the researchers’ analysis indicates that the four low-helium endmembers do not mix efficiently with one author. However, each of them mixes with the high He-3 and He-4 component.

“This unique set of mixing relationships requires a specific geometry for the four geochemical flavours within the upwelling plume: They must hosted within a matrix that is composed of the rare fifth component with the high He-3,” Jackson explained. “This new constraint on plume structure has important implications for how deep mantle material is entrained in plumes, and it gives us the clearest picture yet for the chemical structure of an upwelling mantle plume.”

Co-authors of the paper include Stanley R. Hart, Jerzy S. Blustajn and Mark D. Kurz from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Jasper G. Konter from the University of Hawaii and Kenneth A. Farley from the California Institute of Technology. The research was funded by the National Science Foundation.




Contributing Source: UC Santa Barbara

Header Image Source: WikiPedia

Categories: General

VIDEO: Dialysis in the comfort of your home

BBC test - Fri, 2014-10-17 10:25
Video conferencing is commonplace in the boardroom but it's now being used to treat patients with kidney failure, in their own homes.
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Scientists find ancient mountains that fed early life

Heritage Daily - Fri, 2014-10-17 10:08
Scientists have uncovered evidence for a huge mountain range that sustained an explosion of life on Earth 600 million years ago.

The mountain range was similar in size to the Himalayas and spanned at least 2,500 kilometres of what is now west Africa and northeast Brazil, which at the time were part of the supercontinent Gondwana.

“Just like the Himalayas, this range was eroded intensely because it was so huge. As the sediments washed into the oceans they provided the perfect nutrients for life to flourish,” said Professor Daniela Rubatto of the Research School of Earth Sciences at The Australian National University (ANU).

“Scientists have speculated that such a large mountain range must have been feeding the oceans because of the way life thrived and ocean chemistry changed at this time, and finally we have found it.”

The discovery is the earliest evidence of Himalayan-scale mountains on Earth.

“Although the mountains have long since washed away, rocks from their roots told the story of the ancient mountain range’s grandeur,” said co-researcher Professor Joerg Hermann.

“The range was formed by two continents colliding. During this collision, rocks from the crust were pushed around 100 kilometres deep into the mantle, where high temperatures and pressures formed new minerals.”

While the mountains eroded, the roots arose back to the surface, to be collated in Togo, Mali and northeast Brazil, by Brazilian co-researcher Carlos Ganade de Araujo, from the Universit of Sao Paolo.

Dr. Ganade de Araujo realised the samples were unique and brought the rocks to ANU where, using world-leading equipment, the research team accurately identified that the rocks were of a similar age, and had been formed at similar, great depths.

The research included specialists from various different areas of Earth Science sharing their knowledge, said Professor Rubatto.

“With everyone cooperating to study tiny crystals, we have managed to discover a huge mountain range,” she said.





Contributing Source: Australian National University

Header Image Source: Carlos Ganade de Araujo

Categories: General

Publications in the pipeline

Wessex Archaeology - Fri, 2014-10-17 09:38
Two new publications will be available in November – excavations along the A46 with our partners Cotswold Archaeology and industrial archaeology at Hoyle Street, Sheffield. 

A46 NottinghamshireThe A46 trunk road in Nottinghamshire has its origins as the Roman Fosse Way. Archaeological work ahead of road improvements between Newark and Widmerpool undertaken by Cotswold Wessex Archaeology, has shed light on both Roman and pre-Roman use of this land. A number of significant sites were revealed, including evidence for Late Upper Palaeolithic flintwork at Farndon Fields on the gravel terrace south of Newark. This nationally important site comprised scatters of debris left in situ by a flint-knapper of the Creswellian and Federmesser hunter-gather cultural traditions. At Stragglethorpe there was a ring-ditch with a number of inhumation burials of Beaker date. Iron Age and Roman settlement in the hinterland around the Roman small town of Margidunum near Bingham was also investigated. Further to the south-west near Saxondale, Roman roadside enclosures became the location of early Anglo-Saxon cremation burials and perhaps also a ‘tumulus’, as recorded by William Stukeley in 1722 in the middle of the Fosse Way. 

Hoyle StreetExcavations in 2006–08 by ARCUS (Archaeological Research and Consultancy at the University of Sheffield), and now published by Wessex Archaeology, revealed a complex industrial site which sheds light on steelmaking and the conditions that workers lived and worked in. Historical research, building recording and archaeological excavation revealed the complex history of the site that in 1800 was still surrounded by fields on the town’s north-western edge, but which soon after was swallowed up by the steelworks, foundries and workers’ housing. Sheffield’s burgeoning population provided the workforce for the series of industrial premises – Roscoe Place Works, William Hoole’s Works (later Malinda Works), Hoyle Street Works, Progress Works, Titanic Works and Australian Works.  These industrial complexes were located among the cramped housing of the local working populations, and a number of cellars belonging to the back-to-back tenements and terraced houses were excavated, revealing evidence of possible cottage industry.  Available in November 2014, buy online from Oxbow Books To learn more about our publications follow this link  
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VIDEO: RFA Argus: 'We are ready to deploy'

BBC test - Fri, 2014-10-17 08:28
The Royal Navy medical ship RFA Argus is leaving Britain for Sierra Leone carrying three Merlin helicopters and a crew of around 380.
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VIDEO: What lies in London's drained canals?

BBC test - Fri, 2014-10-17 07:32
London's Regent's Canal is the first of a number of canals in England and Wales to be drained ahead of vital restoration work.
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VIDEO: UK aid teams head for Sierra Leone

BBC test - Fri, 2014-10-17 07:09
The UK's casualty vessel RFA Argus will depart on Friday for Sierra Leone with medical teams and aid experts on board as world leaders call for more aid to fight Ebola.
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VIDEO: Ebola vaccine 'will come too late'

BBC test - Fri, 2014-10-17 06:33
UK pharmaceuticals firm GlaxoSmithKline says its Ebola vaccine will not be ready until late 2015 and is "going to come too late" for this epidemic.
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VIDEO: 'Rotten' kiss and sign off on live TV

BBC test - Fri, 2014-10-17 02:50
Presenter Andrew Neil has unexpected help from John Lydon as he signs off the live political programme This Week.
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In Pictures: First World War fashions from the Illustrated London News archive

24 Hour Museum - Fri, 2014-10-17 00:00
Browse our slideshow to get a taste of First World War fashions and clothing, as covered by the Illustrated London News, The Tatler and other illustrated magazines of the period.
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Battle of Jutland "living legend" HMS Caroline to become museum in £11.5 million overhaul

24 Hour Museum - Fri, 2014-10-17 00:00
HMS Caroline, the lone survivor of the largest naval battle of World War I, will be turned into a major museum - 90 years after she moved to Belfast Harbour.
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Frieze 2014: Eight of the best limited edition prints for art collectors on a budget

24 Hour Museum - Fri, 2014-10-17 00:00
Art collectors are digging deep into their pockets this week. For collectors on a more modest budget, Axisweb have handpicked a few limited edition prints from top artists.
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VIDEO: Families 'stopping UK jihadists'

BBC test - Thu, 2014-10-16 23:15
Dozens of UK families have contacted police in a bid to stop their relatives travelling to Syria, Scotland Yard's head of counter-terrorism has said.
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VIDEO: Liverpool theatre wins Stirling Prize

BBC test - Thu, 2014-10-16 23:01
Liverpool's newly rebuilt Everyman Theatre has won the Riba Stirling Prize for best new building of the year.
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