David Cundall, a farmer from Lincolnshire made headlines in 2012 when it was announced to the World that intact Spitfires could be buried in Burma “‘We sent a borehole down and used a camera to look at the crates. They seemed to be in good condition.” Said Cundall. Herald
This led to a scientific funded expedition by Wargaming.net who sent a leading team of conflict archaeologists and geo-physicists to explore one of the proposed burial sites within the perimeter fence of Yangon international airport.
After a series of investigations on site using archaeological methods and research through historical archives, the archaeologists announced in January 2013:
“The team now believes, based on clear documentary evidence, as well as the evidence from the fieldwork, that no Spitfires were delivered in crates and buried.
The archival records show that the RAF unit that handled shipments through Rangoon docks, 41 Embarkation Unit, only received 37 aircraft in total from three transport ships between 1945 and 1946.
None of the crates contained Spitfires and most appear to have been re-exported in the autumn of 1946,” the statement concluded.
Global Logistics company Claridon said: ”Claridon Group are proud to partner David and provide the funding to enable him and his team to find the Spitfires. We will be supporting David every step of the way and look forward to bringing the Spitfires back home for him.
Cundall is heading back to Burma to resume excavating and estimates that restoring the Spitfires back to original, will create 400 UK jobs over a 5 year period after which many of the aircraft will find homes in Museums up and down the country.Presentation from previous Spitfires in Burma Project:
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In recent months remains of an impressive building from the Hasmonean period (second century BCE) are being unearthed in excavations the Israel Antiquities Authority is directing in the Giv‘ati parking lot, located in the City of David in the Walls Around Jerusalem National Park. The excavations are sponsored by the “Friends of City of David”.
The building stands c. 4 meters high and covers an area of c. 64 sq. m. The building’s broad walls (more than one meter thick) are made of roughly hewn limestone blocks that were arranged as headers and stretchers, a construction method characteristic of the Hasmonean period.
Although numerous pottery vessels were discovered inside the building, it was mainly the coins that surprised the researchers. These indicated the structure was erected in the early second century BCE and continued into the Hasmonean period, during which time significant changes were made inside it.
According to Dr. Doron Ben Ami and Yana Tchekhanovets, the excavation directors on behalf to the Israel Antiquities Authority, “The importance of this discovery is primarily because of the conspicuous paucity of buildings from the Hasmonean city of Jerusalem in archaeological research, despite the many excavations that have been conducted to date.
Apart from several remains of the city’s fortifications that were discovered in different parts of Jerusalem, as well as pottery and other small finds, none of the Hasmonean city’s buildings have been uncovered so far, and this discovery bridges a certain gap in Jerusalem’s settlement sequence. The Hasmonean city, which is well-known to us from the historical descriptions that appear in the works of Josephus, has suddenly acquired tangible expression”.
Contributing Source : IAAA Building Dating to the Hasmonean Period was Discovered in Jerusalem
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The findings, published in the latest edition of the Canadian Journal of Archaeology, indicate that Neanderthals butchered animals, made tools and gathered round the fire in different parts of their shelters.
“There has been this idea that Neanderthals did not have an organized use of space, something that has always been attributed to humans,” said Julien Riel-Salvatore, assistant professor of anthropology at the University of Colorado Denver and lead author of the study. “But we found that Neanderthals did not just throw their stuff everywhere but in fact were organized and purposeful when it came to domestic space.”
The findings are based on excavations at Riparo Bombrini, a collapsed rock shelter in northwest Italy where both Neanderthals and, later, early humans lived for thousands of years. This study focused on the Neanderthal levels while future research will examine the more recent modern human levels at the site. The goal is to compare how the two groups organized their space.
The site comprises three levels assigned to Neanderthals. Scientists found that Neanderthals divided the cave into different areas for different activities. The top level was used as a task site – likely a hunting stand – where they could kill and prepare game. The middle level was a long-term base camp and the bottom level was a shorter term residential base camp.
Riel-Salvatore and his team found a high frequency of animal remains in the rear of the top level, indicating that the area was likely used for butchering game. They also found evidence of ochre use in the back of the shelter.
“We found some ochre throughout the sequence but we are not sure what it was used for,” Riel-Salvatore said. “Neanderthals could have used it for tanning hides, for gluing, as an antiseptic or even for symbolic purposes – we really can’t tell at this point.”
In the middle level, which has the densest traces of human occupation, artifacts were distributed differently. Animal bones were concentrated at the front rather than the rear of the cave. This was also true of the stone tools, or lithics. A hearth was in back of the cave about half a meter to a meter from the wall. It would have allowed warmth from the fire to circulate among the living area.
“When you make stone tools there is a lot of debris that you don’t want in high traffic areas or you risk injuring yourself,” Riel-Salvatore said. “There are clearly fewer stone artifacts in the back of the shelter near the hearth.”
The bottom level, thought to represent a short-term base camp, is the least well known because it was exposed only over a very small area. More stone artifacts were found immediately inside the shelter’s mouth, suggesting tool production may have occurred inside the part of the site where sunlight was available. Some shellfish fragments also suggest that Neanderthals exploited the sea for food; like ochre, these are found in all the levels.
The discoveries are the latest in continuing research by Riel-Salvatore showing that Neanderthals were far more advanced than originally thought.
In an earlier study, he found that Neanderthals were highly innovative, creating bone tools, ornaments and projectile points. He also co-authored a paper demonstrating that interbreeding between Neanderthals and humans may have led to the ultimate demise of the outnumbered hominins. Still, Neanderthal genes make up between one and four percent of today’s human genome, especially among Europeans.
“This is ongoing work, but the big picture in this study is that we have one more example that Neanderthals used some kind of logic for organizing their living sites,” Riel-Salvatore said. “This is still more evidence that they were more sophisticated than many have given them credit for. If we are going to identify modern human behavior on the basis of organized spatial patterns, then you have to extend it to Neanderthals as well.”
Header Image : Family of Neanderthals : Wiki Commons
Contributing Source : University of Colorado Denver
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WWII Aircraft-Carrier Submarine Discovered Off The Coast Of Oahu After Being Lost Since 1946 [VIDEO]
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