British Archaeology banner

Cover of British Archaeology

Issue 65

June 2002



Wealthy early Roman graves near St Albans

Dig in West Midlands reveals empty landscape

Medieval enclosed garden found at Welsh border castle

Porcelain finds show changes in 18th century taste

Medieval parchment from site of Canterbury’s friary

In Brief


Fortress Britain
Simon Denison on Britain’s Second World War defences

Great Sites
Paul Bidwell on the Roman legionary baths at Exeter

Engines of Change
David Gwyn on the landscape archaeology of railways

Lord of the Hrungs
David Hinton on the influences behind Tolkien’s epic


Armoured jacks, human sacrifice, and a ‘lost’ Roman town


Stop demolishing Victorian terraces, by George Lambrick

Peter Ellis

Regular column


Mosaics of the Greek and Roman World by Katherine Dunbabin

Migrants and Invaders by Malcolm Todd

The Molecule Hunt by Martin Jones

Britons and Romans edited by Simon James & Martin Millett

The Archaeology of Shamanism edited by Neil Price

CBA update

favourite finds

John Lewis on realising the truth about the Stanwell cursus.


ISSN 1357-4442

Editor Simon Denison

Armoured jacket

From Mr Quentin Hawkins

Sir: I was interested to read about the recent discovery of part of a 16th century armoured jacket in Chester (News, April). A modern replica of a 'jack' can be seen and handled at the Museum of Border History in Hexham, Northumberland.

Your report claims that jacks ceased to be worn in the late 16th century because they offered no protection against musket balls. Is this a fair assumption? Whether or not a musket ball could penetrate armour was dependent on a number of factors, one of which is that firearms in those days did not always fire. This is the origin of the term 'flash in the pan'. Also, firearms were not that common in the 16th century, although they were in use.

Body armour, in the form of the iron cuirass, continued to be worn throughout much of the 17th century before its eventual demise. Not only did firearms become more widely used during the 17th century, but also the gradual replacement of matchlocks with flintlocks made the weapons more reliable, provided that the flint was replaced at regular intervals. Perhaps jacks fell out of use, instead, because they took so long to make.

Yours faithfully,
Quentin Hawkins
London SE25
21 April

Human sacrifice

From Mr Michael Cuddeford

Sir: There has been much discussion in recent issues about cannibalism and human sacrifice, which may occasionally have been related (eg, Books, April; Letters, April). Such practices were abhorrent to the Romans as much as they are today, and yet both are demonstrably a commonplace throughout history.

The Gesta Francorum and other medieval chronicles describe how starving Europeans ate dead Saracens in the absence of any other sustenance during the First Crusade. Cannibalism has occurred after plane crashes and shipwrecks in more recent times. This year, newspapers carried reports of the dismembered body of a boy recovered from the Thames, who The Times (20 April) suggested may have been a sacrifice to a Nigerian sea goddess.

It could be argued that there is little fundamental difference between an Islamic suicide bomber and an Iron Age bog body - self-immolation (voluntary or otherwise) through political incentive coupled with profound religious conviction. And is judicial execution not also a form of human sacrifice? Although primarily a form of punishment and deterrence, is there not also perhaps an element of sacrifice to Justice contained in this ritualistic act? From wicker man to electric chair - just how far have we come?

Yours sincerely,
Michael Cuddeford
Pleshey, Essex
21 April

Lost and found

From Dr Paul Wilkinson

Sir: Paul Ashbee's letter commenting on the lost Roman town of Durolevum near Faversham (Letters, April) contained some interesting information. However his comment that our discovery of Durolevum is 'not new' is misleading.

We are aware of numerous suggestions (eg, in the Victoria County History, 1908) that the site was at Syndale, but even the VCH hedges its bets and says 'but identification falls short of precision' - and goes on to say that the site may be at Teynham some three miles to the west. The Ordnance Survey, another authority cited by Dr Ashbee, also places Durolevum at Teynham in its 1840 edition. Obviously confusion reigned (and still does) about the site's exact location.

Now, three years of geophysical survey followed by focused excavation have defined the exact location and extent of the town. It is, in fact, closer to Ospringe than Syndale - and therefore not where earlier researchers thought it was.

Yours sincerely,
Paul Wilkinson
Kent Archaeological Field School
20 April


From Mr Chris Burr

Sir: The first sight of lonely Stonehenge as seen unexpectedly when driving along the nearby road must have caused a million travellers to pause for thought over the past hundred years. I hope that depriving large numbers of passers-by of the spectacle by diverting the roads to create a revised on-site visitor experience (Update, April) doesn't reduce the public perception of the monument to that of just another pay-per-view attraction. The tingle most people have experienced to date is as part of their real lives, in passing, so to speak.

Perhaps the cost of hiding the site from the roads would be better spent in building a replica more centrally located. This could have better parking, a good coffee shop, feature an as-new reconstruction like the one in Oregon and an exciting Imax 3-D presentation of the late use of the site for executions. At the real site, our descendants can always bury the roads if they wish after the age of the car comes to an end. Unless, of course, they then regard our highways as monuments.

Yours sincerely,
Chris Burr
Copthorne, Sussex
6 May

We welcome letters from readers. They may be emailed to Mike Pitts the Editor at or faxed to 01904 671384. They may be edited.

CBA web:

British Archaeology

Jan/Feb 2005
Mar/Apr 2005
May/Jun 2005
Jul/Aug 2005
Sep/Oct 2005
Nov/Dec 2005
Jan/Feb 2006
Mar/Apr 2006
May/Jun 2006
Jul/Aug 2006
Sep/Oct 2006
Nov/Dec 2006
Jan/Feb 2007
Mar/Apr 2007
May/Jun 2007
Jul/Aug 2007
Sep/Oct 2007
Nov/Dec 2007
Jan/Feb 2008
Mar/Apr 2008
May/Jun 2008
Jul/Aug 2008
Sep/Oct 2008
Nov/Dec 2008
Jan/Feb 2009
Mar/Apr 2009
May/Jun 2009
Jul/Aug 2009
Sep/Oct 2009
Nov/Dec 2009
Jan/Feb 2010
Mar/Apr 2010
May/Jun 2010
Jul/Aug 2010
Sep/Oct 2010
Nov/Dec 2010
Jan/Feb 2011
Mar/Apr 2011
May/Jun 2011
Jul/Aug 2011
Sep/Oct 2011
Nov/Dec 2011
Jan/Feb 2012
Mar/Apr 2012

CBA Briefing

Courses & lectures
CBA Network
Grants & awards

CBA homepage