From The Ground Up

The Publication of Archaeological Projects

a user needs survey

 


Appendices

Appendix 3.3: The questionnaire sample frame and sample

Table A3.1: Details of the sources and procedures used in the construction of sample frames by constituency.

Constituency Production of list/ sample frame Assessment of the sample frame Sampling technique Survey
technique
Curators The Profiling the Profession survey + CBA Yearbook The list of individuals obtained was pretty comprehensive Systematic selection based on a sampling interval with geographical stratification of the list to ensure good coverage Questionnaires were sent directly to individuals in the sample
Contractors The Profiling the Profession survey + CBA Yearbook.

CBA Institutional membership list was also useful.

These sources provided a pretty comprehensive list of organisations, but not of individuals Multi-stage sampling was used. First, organisations were sampled in a stratified fashion to ensure good regional coverage. These organisations were asked to provide lists of permanent and temporary staff at all levels of employment. The resulting list of individuals was then sampled systematically using a sampling interval. Questionnaires were sent directly to individuals in the sample
Consultants The Profiling the Profession survey + CBA Yearbook It is difficult to know how comprehensive this list is as consultants are a difficult group to identify. There is a strong possibility that the sample frame is partial as consultants are often self-employed or employed by non-archaeological organisations Systematic selection based on a sampling interval with geographical stratification of the list to ensure good coverage Questionnaires were sent directly to individuals in the sample
Museum archaeologists The Profiling the Profession survey + CBA Yearbook

The Society for Museum Archaeologists Yearbook provided further information

The list provided reasonable coverage. It may, however, have some bias towards more senior figures when full penetration of the group would be ideal Systematic selection based on a sampling interval with geographical stratification of the list to ensure good coverage Questionnaires were sent directly to individuals in the sample
Specialists The Profiling the Profession survey + CBA Yearbook.

The list was also supplemented whilst contacting contractors, who were asked to identify any employees undertaking specialist work

The list of individuals obtained is likely to be partial and difficult to augment as many specialists are self-employed Systematic selection based on a sampling interval with geographical stratification of the list to ensure good coverage Questionnaires were sent directly to individuals in the sample
University/college staff The Profiling the Profession survey + CBA Yearbook The list obtained is pretty comprehensive Systematic selection based on a sampling interval with geographical stratification of the list to ensure good coverage Questionnaires were sent directly to individuals in the sample
Postgraduates CBA Yearbook The source provided a comprehensive list of institutions with postgraduate students in archaeology, but not lists of individuals. Multi-stage sampling was used. First, institutions were sampled in a stratified fashion to ensure good regional coverage. These organisations were asked to provide lists of permanent and temporary staff at all levels of employment. The resulting list of individuals was then sampled systematically using a sampling interval. Questionnaires were sent directly to individuals in the sample
Undergraduates CBA Yearbook The source provided a comprehensive list of institutions with undergraduate students in archaeology, but not lists of individuals Multi-stage sampling was used. First, institutions were sampled in a stratified fashion to ensure good regional coverage. However, it was not feasible to obtain lists of undergraduate students and questionnaires was distributed by lecturing staff at selected institutions. Questionnaires mailed to an individual member of staff who distributed them to students.

Table A3.2: Details of the sample frame and interval used for conservators.

Region Sample frame Sampling interval Number sampled
Central England 3 1/1 3
Channel Isles 0 - 0
Isle of Man 0 - 0
Northern England 9 1/1 9
Northern Ireland 3 1/1 3
Republic of Ireland 0 1/1 0
Scotland 3 1/1 3
Southern England 70 1/1 70
Wales 5 1/1 5
Total 93 - 93

Table A3.3: Details of the sample frame and interval used for consultants

Region Sample frame Sampling interval Number sampled
Central England 49 1/1 49
Channel Isles 0 1/1 0
Isle of Man 1 1/1 1
Northern England 32 1/1 32
Northern Ireland 0 1/1 0
Republic of Ireland 37 1/1 37
Scotland 4 1/1 4
Southern England 84 1/1 84
Wales 6 1/1 6
Total 214   214

Table A3.4: Details of the sample frame and interval used for contractors

Region Sample frame Sampling interval Number sampled
Central England 94 1/3 32
Channel Isles 0 - 0
Isle of Man 0 - 0
Northern England 89 1/2 45
Northern Ireland 1 1/1 1
Republic of Ireland 109 1/3 37
Scotland 60 1/2 30
Southern England 179 1/3 60
Wales 45 1/2 22
Total 577   227

Table A3.5: Details of the sample frame and interval used for curators (includes local government archaeologists and archaeologists working for a national archaeological body)

Region Sample frame Sampling interval Number sampled
Central England 61 1/2 31
Channel Isles 0 - 0
Isle of Man 2 1/1 2
Northern England 42 1/1.5 28
Northern Ireland 15 1/1 15
Republic of Ireland 49 1/1.5 33
Scotland 58 1/2 30
Southern England 107 1/2 53
Wales 64 1/1.5 44
Total 398   236

Table A3.6: Details of the sample frame and interval used for illustrators

Region Sample frame Sampling interval Number sampled
Central England 7 1/1 7
Channel Isles 0 - 0
Isle of Man 0 - 0
Northern England 6 1/1 6
Northern Ireland 1 1/1 1
Republic of Ireland 1 1/1 1
Scotland 10 1/1 10
Southern England 9 1/1 9
Wales 8 1/1 8
Total 42 - 42

Table A3.7: Details of the sample frame and interval used for museum archaeologists

Region Sample frame Sampling interval Number sampled
Central England 108 1/3 36
Channel Isles 2 1/1 2
Isle of Man 1 1/1 1
Northern England 94 1/3 32
Northern Ireland 7 1/1 7
Republic of Ireland 27 1/1 27
Scotland 45 1/1 45
Southern England 147 1/3 49
Wales 19 1/1 19
Total 450   218

Table A3.8: Details of the sample frame and interval used for postgraduates

Region Sample frame Sampling interval Number sampled
Central England (Leicester & Birmingham) 86 1/2 43
Channel Isles 0 - 0
Isle of Man 0 - 0
Northern England (Sheffield) 248 1/7 36
Northern Ireland (Queen's) 10 1/1 10
Republic of Ireland (Dublin - NB. Indirect sample via departmental secretary) 20 1/1 20
Scotland (Glasgow) 36 1/1 36
Southern England (Reading & The Institute of Archaeology) 310 1/8 39
Wales (Cardiff) 22 1/1 22
Total 732 - 206

NB. In the database the total number sampled comes to 186 as the 20 Dublin postgraduates could not be entered by name.

Table A3.9: Details of the sample frame and interval used for specialists

Region Sample frame Sampling interval Number sampled
Central England 44 1/1 44
Channel Isles 0 - 0
Isle of Man 0 - 0
Northern England 30 1/1 30
Northern Ireland 1 1/1 1
Republic of Ireland 4 1/1 4
Scotland 9 1/1 9
Southern England 49 1/1 49
Wales 13 1/1 13
Total 150 - 150

Table A3.10: Details of the sample frame and interval used for university/college staff

Region Sample frame Sampling interval Number sampled
Central England 137 1/3 46
Channel Isles 0 - 0
Isle of Man 0 - 0
Northern England 147 1/3 49
Northern Ireland 11 1/1 11
Republic of Ireland 54 1/2 27
Scotland 37 1/2 18
Southern England 178 1/4 45
Wales 58 1/2 27
Total 618 - 223

Table A 3.11: Details of the sample frame and interval used for local/regional societies

NB. A slightly different sampling strategy has been adopted here as it was not possible to obtain a list of individuals and their addresses. Instead, 3 copies of the questionnaire were sent to the named representative of each society, along with a letter asking that person to complete 1 and pass the others on to 2 other members, preferably amateur members rather than professionals who should have been included in the sample frame elsewhere. In addition, one society from each region was contacted directly by telephone to ask them if they could distribute 10 questionnaires to their members for us to ensure that a reasonable sample was obtained. A list of those organisations follows, along with a table showing the maximum number of individuals sampled for each region. The sample size appears much larger than for other constituencies, but it is likely that in many cases the named representative may not have been able/willing to pass questionnaires on to their members.

Those societies who agreed to distribute 10 copies include:

Region Sample frame (societies) Sampling interval Number sampled
Central England 40 1/1 120 (127)
Channel Isles 1 1/1 3
Isle of Man 1 1/1 3
Northern England 18 1/1 54 (61)
Northern Ireland 1 1/1 3 (10)
Republic of Ireland 2 1/1 6 (13)
Scotland 11 1/1 33 (40)
Southern England 41 1/1 123 (130)
Wales 7 1/1 21 (28)
Total 122 - 366 (409)

NB. The total number sampled rises to 409 when those the additional copies sent to those societies listed above are included.

Table A3.12: Details of the sample frame and interval used for national societies

The sampling strategy for national societies also differed. Many people in other constituencies were likely to be members of national societies aside from their primary constituency so the sampling strategy focused on named the named representative of each society. National societies include all nation-wide societies whether, including period and subject specific societies, for example the Lithic Studies Group.

Region Sample frame Sampling interval Number sampled
Central England 13 1/1 13
Channel Isles - 1/1 1
Isle of Man - 1/1 1
Northern England 3 1/1 3
Northern Ireland 0 1/1 0
Republic of Ireland 7 1/1 7
Scotland 3 1/1 3
Southern England 31 1/1 31
Wales 2 1/1 2
Total 59 - 59

Details of the sample frame and interval used for independent archaeologists

The sample of Independent archaeologists was based on the Council for Independent Archaeology membership list. Circulation was arranged through the CIA and 400 questionnaires were distributed. As with local archaeology societies, the sample size appears much larger than for other constituencies, but as there was no means of tracking responses and sending reminders the response rate was expected to be lower and consequently it was necessary to send more out.

Details of the sample frame and interval used for undergraduates

It was not possible to obtain lists of named undergraduates so sampling was based on the selection of one University in each region. The questionnaires were then distributed by a member of staff their students. The Universities selected were:

University of Leicester (30)
University of Sheffield (30)
Queen's University, Belfast (20)
University of Southampton (40)
University College, Dublin (40)
University College of Wales, Lampeter (30)
University of Glasgow (20)

Total: (210)


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